T10.11 Kilder

Akutt bronkiolitt

Skjerven, H. O., et al. (2013). Racemic adrenaline and inhalation strategies in acute bronchiolitis. N Engl J Med 368(24): 2286-2293.

Piippo-Savolainen E et. al. Adult asthma after non-respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy: subgroup analysis of the 20-year prospective follow-up study. Pediatr Int. 2007 Apr;49(2):190-5. PMID: 17445037.

Akutte infeksjoner i nedre luftveier og lunger

Robert Guthrie. Community-Acquired Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Etiology and Treatment. Chest 2001;120;2021-2034

BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009. Thorax; October 2009. Volume 64; suppl 3.

Alvorlig astma

Difficult-to-treat & Severe Asthma in adolescent and adult patients. Diagnosis and Management. A GINA Pocket Guide For Health Professionals. V2.0 April 2019. Global Initiative for Asthma, 2021. Available from: www.ginasthma.org

Global Initiative for Asthma. Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, 2021. Available from: www.ginasthma.org

Lehmann S, Stylianou E, Tøndell A, et al. Praktisk veileder for alvorlig astma hos voksne. Norsk Forening for Lungemedisin.2019. Praktisk veileder for alvorlig astma hos voksne (legeforeningen.no). 

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2021) Dupilumab for treating severe asthma with type 2 inflammation. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta751

Porsbjerg C, von Bülow A, Wimmer A, et al. Retningslinje for behandling af svær astma med biologiske lægemidler. Dansk Lungemedicinsk Selskab. (2020). https://lungemedicin.dk/astma-svaer-biologiske-behandlinger/ 

Rajan, J.P., N.E. Wineinger, D.D. Stevenson, et al., Prevalence of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease among asthmatic patients: A meta-analysis of the literature. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2015. 135(3): p. 676-81 e1.

Nystad, W. Tema: Hva er forekomsten av astma, allergisk rhinitt og atopisk eksem blant barn, unge og voksne? Folkehelseinstituttet. Dato 19.12.2021. Se www.fhi.no.

Hekking PW, Wener RR, Amelink M, et al. The prevalence of severe refractory asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015; 135: 896–902.

Menzies-Gow A, Corren J, Bel EH, et al. Corticosteroid tapering with benralizumab treatment for eosinophilic asthma: PONENTE Trial. ERJ Open Res. 2019 Jul; 5(3): 00009-2019.

Chung KF, Wenzel SE, Brozek JL, et al. International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma. Eur Respir J 2014; 43: 343-373. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00202013 

Bronkial astma

2017 GINA Report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention.

To T, et al. (2010). What is the lifetime risk of physician-diagnosed asthma in Ontario, Canada? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 181(4): 337-343).

Carlsen KH. Hvorfor utvikler idrettsutøvere så ofte astma? Allergi i Praksis 2012; 2: 6-12.

Carlsen KH. Asthma in Olympians. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2015 Nov 26. pii: S1526-0542(15)00084-6. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2015.08.013. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 26631837.

Covid 19 / Koronavirus

N Engl J Med . 2020 Jul 17;NEJMoa2021436. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2021436. Online ahead of print. Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 

WHO: Descriptive analysis of COVID-19-related spontaneous related spontaneous reports from VigiBase: interim results. 2020-08-26. https://www.who.int/medicines/regulation/medicines-safety/COVID19-PV-update6.pdf?ua=1

Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19 –interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results. WHO Solidarity trial consortium. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.15.20209817 

Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Final Report, NEJM. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007764

Blomberg, B., Mohn, K.GI., Brokstad, K.A. et al. Long COVID in a prospective cohort of home-isolated patients. Nat Med 27, 1607–1613 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01433-3

Katsoularis I, Fonseca-Rodríguez O, Farrington P, Jerndal H, Lundevaller E H, Sund M et al. Risks of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding after covid-19: nationwide self-controlled cases series and matched cohort study BMJ 2022; 377 :e069590 doi:10.1136/bmj-2021-069590.


Feller-Kopman D, Light R. Pleural Disease. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(8):740-751. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1403503. https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMra1403503 

Bedawi EO, Hassan M, Rahman NM. Recent developments in the management of pleural infection: A comprehensive review. Clin Respir J. 2018;12(8):2309-2320. doi: 10.1111/crj.12941.


Spagnolo P, Rossi G, Cavazza A, et al. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: A Comprehensive Review. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2015;25(4):237-50. http://www.jiaci.org/summary/vol25-issue4-num1239

Idiopatisk interstitiell pneumoni

Travis WD, Costabel U, Hansell DM, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: Update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188(6):733–748. doi:10.1164/rccm.201308-1483ST. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5803655/ 

Raghu G, Remy-Jardin M, Myers JL et al.; American Thoracic Society, European Respiratory Society, Japanese Respiratory Society, and Latin American Thoracic Society. Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. An Official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;198(5):e44-e68. https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rccm.201807-125 

Ikke-tuberkuløse mykobakterier

Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, et al. ATS Mycobacterial Diseases Subcommittee; American Thoracic Society; Infectious Disease Society of America. An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb 15;175(4):367-416. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200604-571ST. Erratum in: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Apr 1;175(7):744-5. Dosage error in article text. PMID: 17277290.

Tveiten H, Brantsæter AB, Mengshoel AT. Lungeinfeksjoner med ikke-tuberkuløse mykobakterier. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2018 doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.18.0077.

Daley, CL, Iaccarino JM, Lange C, et al. Treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: an official ATS/ERS/ESCMID/IDSA clinical practice guideline. The European respiratory journal, 56(1), 2000535. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00535-2020 PMID: 32636299.

Haworth CS, Banks J, Capstick T, et al. British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). Thorax. 2017 Nov;72(Suppl 2):ii1-ii64. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-210927. PMID: 29054853.


Kikhoste FHI – Dagens situasjon: https://www.fhi.no/nettpub/smittevernveilederen/sykdommer-a-a/kikhoste-pertussis---veileder-for-h/

Hindiyeh M, Carroll KC. Laboratory diagnosis of atypical pneumonia. Semin Respir Infect. 2000 Jun; 15(2): 101-13.

UpToDate 20.12.2016. Pertussis infection in adolescents and adults: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pertussis-infection-in-adolescents-and-adults-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis?source=machineLearning&search=pertussis&selectedTitle=3~150&sectionRank=2&anchor=H248746150#H248746150

UpToDate 20.12.2016: Pertussis infection in adolescents and adults: Treatment and prevention. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pertussis-infection-in-adolescents-and-adults-treatment-and-prevention?source=search_result&search=pertussis&selectedTitle=1~150

CDC: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5414a1.htm


UpToDdate 4.12.2019: Lung abscess. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/lung-abscess 

 Kuhajda I, Zarogoulidis K, Tsirgogianni K, et al. Lung abscess-etiology, diagnostic and treatment options. Ann Transl Med. 2015;3(13):183. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.07.08. http://atm.amegroups.com/article/view/7152/7940

Obstruktiv lungesykdom

2020 Global Strategy for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of COPD. Evidence-based strategy document for COPD diagnosis, management, and prevention, with citations from the scientific literature. https://goldcopd.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/GOLD-2020-REPORT-ver1.1wms.pdf 

Quanjer PH, Stanojevic S, Cole TJ, et al. Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations. Eur Respir J. 2012;40(6):1324–1343. doi:10.1183/09031936.00080312. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786581/

Pneumonier, bakterielle og med ukjent etiologi

Arnesen MT. Tuberkuloseutbrudd på Østlandet. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2015: 135: 2160-4. dio: 10.4045/tidskr. 14.0770.

Ewig S. Welte T. Editorial. CRB-65 for the assessment of pneumonia severity: who could ask for more? Thorax 2008; 63: 665-666 doi: 10.1136/ thx.2008.099028

Hindiyeh M, Carroll KC. Laboratory diagnosis of atypical pneumonia. Semin Respir Infect. 2000 Jun;15(2):101-13.

Respiratorisk distressyndrom hos premature barn

Walsh BK, Daigle B, Diblasi RM, Restrepo RD. AARC clinical practice guideline. Surfactant replacement therapy: 2013. Respir Care. 2013 Feb;58(2):367-75.

Rojas-Reyes MX, Morley CJ, Soll R. Prophylactic versus selective use of surfactant in preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 3. Art.

Stevens TP., Blennow M, Myers EH, Soll R. Early surfactant administration with brief ventilation vs. selective surfactant and continued mechanical ventilation for preterm infants with or at risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art.

Saker F, Martin R. Prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Uptodate.com Feb 2015.

Seger N, Soll R. Animal derived surfactant extract for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009,Issue 2.

Henderson-Smart DJ, Steer PA. Caffeine versus theophylline for apnea in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. Art.

Sweet DG, Halliday H et al: European Consensus Guidelines on the management of RDS . 2019 Update, Neonatology 2019; 115: 432-450.


Vårdprogram för Sarkoidos 2018. https://beta.legeforeningen.no/contentassets/c31f9ba5e0a645f0b272362a18eed2bd/vp_sarkoidos_web_180117.pdf 

Ahmadzai H, Huang S, Steinfort C et al. Sarcoidosis: a state of the art review from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand. The Medical journal of Australia. 2018;208(11):499-504. doi: 10.5694/mja17.00610 

 Grunewald J, Grutters JC, Arkema EV et al. Sarcoidosis. Nature reviews Disease primers. 2019;5(1):45. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41572-019-0096-x