T1.24 Kilder

Akutt bakteriell meningitt

Bläckberg J, Brink M, Ericsson M et al. Svenska Infektionsläkarföreningen: Vårdprogram Bakteriella CNS-infektioner 2010

Brouwer MC, Tunkel AR, vd Beek D, Epidemiology, diagnosis, and antimicrobial treatment of acute bacterial meningitis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010;23:467-92

Helsedirektoratet. Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for bruk av antibiotika i sykehus. Sentralt nervesystemhttp://sites.helsedirektoratet.no/sites/antibiotikabruk-i-sykehus/terapikapitler/sentralt-nervesystem/Sider/default.aspx

Peltola H, Antilla M, Renkonen OV. Randomised comparison of chloramphenicol, ampicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone for childhood bacterial meningitis. Lancet 1989;8650:1281-7

Tunkel AR, Hartman, BJ, Kaplan, SJ et al. Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39:1267-84

Tängden T, Enblad P, Ullberg M, et al. Neurosurgical gram-negative bacillary ventriculitis and meningitis: a retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of intraventricular gentamicin therapy in 31 consecutive cases. Clin Indect Dis 2011;52:1310-6

Van de Beek D, de Gans J, Spanjaard L, et al. Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1849-59

Akutt viral meningitt og encefalitt

Abzug MJ, Michaels MG, Wald E, et al. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pleconaril for the Treatment of Neonates With Enterovirus Sepsis. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2016; 5:53-62

Auwaerter PG. Encephalitis. I: The Johns Hopkins ABX guide. Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases. 2nd ed. (Bartlett, JG, Auwaerter PG, Pham, PA, eds.) 2010. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA, USA

Beckham JD and Tyler KL. Encephalitis. I: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Priciples and Practice of Infectious Diseases 8th ed. (Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ) 2014; 1144-63. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Bloch KC, Glaser CA. Encephalitis surveillance through the emerging infections program 1997-2010. Emerging Infect Dis 2015;21:1562-1567

Britton, PN, Eastwood, K, Paterson, B, et al. Consensus guidelines for the investigation and management of encephalitis in adults and children in Australia and New Zealand. Internal Medicine Journal 2015;45:563-576

Chow FC, Glaser CA, Sheriff H, et al. Use of clinical and neuroimaging characteristics to distinguish temporal lobe Herpes simplex encephalitis from its mimics. Clin Infect Dis 2015;60:1377-83

DuBray K, Anglemyer A, LaBeaud, et al. Epidemiology, Outcomes and Predictors of Recovery in Childhood Encephalitis. Pediatr Infect Dis 2013;32:839-44

Døllner H, Bjurulf B, Klingenberg C. Serøs meningitt, akutt encefalitt og akutt disseminert encefalomyelitt (ADEM). 2013. Akuttveileder i pediatri. Norsk barnelegeforening.

Gnann JW Jr, Sköldenberg B, Hart J, et al. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Lack of Clinical Benefit of Long-term Valacyclovir Therapy.Clin Infect Dis 2015;61:683-91

Martinez-Torres F, Menon S, Pritsch M, et al. Protocol for German trial of Acyclovir and corticosteroids in Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (GACHE): a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled German, Austrian and Dutch trial [ISRCTN45122933].BMC Neurol. 2008;8:40

The Sanford Guide To Antimicrobial Therapy 44th ed. 2014, Gilbert DN, Chambers HF, Eliopoulos GM, Saag MS, eds.), Sperryville, VA, USA Solomon T, Michael BD, Smith PE, et al. Management of suspected viral encephalitis in adults – Association of British Neurologists and British Infection Association National Guidelines. J Infect 2012;64:347-73

Tunkel AR, Glaser CA, Bloch KC, et al. The management of encephalitis: Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:303-327

Venkatesan A, Tunkel AR, Bloch, KC, et al. Case definitions, diagnostic algorithms, and priorities in encephalitis: consensus statement of the International Encephalitis Consortium. Clin Infect Dis 2013;57(8):1114-1128

Bakteriell endokarditt

Murdoch DR, MD, Corey RG, Hoen B. Clinical Presentation, Etiology, and Outcome of Infective Endocarditis in the 21st Century. The International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(5):463-473.

Gould FK, Denning DW, Elliott TSJ et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011; 67(2): 269-89. doi:10.1093/jac/dkr450.

Sjursen H. Antibiotikabehandling ved infeksiøs endokarditt. Tidsskr Nor Legefor 2001;121:

Aufwerber E, Christensson B, Ekdahl C et al. Svenska infektionsläkarföreningen: Vårdprogram för infektiös endokardit rev. version 2008/2009. Web: http://www.infektion.net/sites/default/files/pdf/vardprogram_endokardit_091221.pdf (sist aksessert 22.01.2012).

Bruun NE, Egeblad H, Elming H, Fuursted K, Hassager C, Nørregaard Hansen K. Dansk cardiologisk Sælskab: Konsensusrapport om infektiøs endocarditis, april 2010. Web: http://cardio.synkron.com/sw12190.asp?usepf=true (sist aksessert 22.01.2012).

Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009). ESC Guidelines. European Heart Journal 2009;30:2369-2413.

Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS et al. Infective endocarditis: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial therapy, and Management of Complications. Circulation 2005;111:394-434.

Boumis E, Gesu G, Menichetti F. Consensus document on controversial issues in the diagnosis and treatment of bloodstream infections and endocarditis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010; 14 Suppl. 4: 23-38.

Desinfeksjon

Russel AD, Furr JR, Maillard J-Y. Microbial susceptibility and resistance to biocides. AMS News 1997; 63: 481-7.

Sagripanti J-L, Bonifacino A. Comparative sporicidal effect of liquid chemical germicides on three medical devices contaminated with spores of Bacillus subtilis. Am J Infect Control 1996; 24: 364-71.

Rutala WA, Weber DJ. New disinfection and sterilization methods. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7: 1-12.

Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Recommendations for disinfection and sterilization. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 1348-1356.

Weber DJ, Barbee SL, Sobsey MD, Rutala WA. The effect of blood on the antiviral activity of sodium hypochlorite, a phenolic, and a quaternary ammonium compound. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999; 20: 821-827.

Røed RT, Gullord TP, Norman BIS, Andersen BM. Fleksible endoskop. Forebygging av infeksjoner, 2002. Oslo: Arbeidsutvalg, Faggruppe for infeksjonskontroll, Helseregion Øst og Ullevål universitetssykehus, 2002.

Andersen BM. Bakterier og sykdom. Epidemiologi, infeksjoner og smittevern. Gyldendal Akademisk, Oslo 2005.

Andersen BM, Bånrud H, Bøe E, Bjordal O, Drangsholt F. Comparison of UVC light and chemicals for disinfection of surfaces in hospital isolation units. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006; 27: 729-735.

Nerandzic MM, Cadnum JL, Pultz MJ, Donskey CJ. Evaluation of an automated ultraviolet radiation device for decontamination of Clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens in hospital rooms. BMC Infect Dis 2010; 10:197

Andersen BM, Rasch M, Hochlin K, Jensen JF, P. Wismar P, Fredriksen JE. Decontamination of rooms, medical equipment and ambulances, using a dry mist of hydrogen peroxide disinfectant. J Hosp Infection 2006; 62: 149-155.

Barbut F, Menuet D, Verachten M, Girou E. Comparison of the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist disinfection system and sodium hypochlorite solution for reduction of Clostridium difficile spores. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009; 30: 507-514.

Fraise AP. Decontamination of the environment. J Hosp Infect 2007; 65: 58-59.

Statens legemiddelverk: Kjemiske desinfeksjonsmidler til teknisk bruk i helse- og sykepleie, 2007.

Andersen BM. Hochlin K, Rasch M, Tollefsen T. Teknisk desinfeksjon av instrumenter og utstyr. I: Håndbok i hygiene og smittevern for sykehus. Ullevål universitetssykehus, 2008.

Rutala WA, Weber DJ, and the HICPAC. Guideline for disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities, 2008. CDC 2008, USA.

Rutala, Weber. Guideline for disinfection and sterilization of prion-contaminated medical instruments. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31: 107-117

Rutala WA, Weber DJ. Disinfection, sterilization, and control of hospital waste. In: Mandell, Douglas, Bennet's(Ed) Principles and Practice of Infectious diseases 2010; 3677-3697

US Food and Drug Administration. Device evaluation information. FDA-cleared sterilants and high level disinfectants with general claims for processing reusable medical and dental devices. March 2009. www.fda.gov/cdrh/ode/germlab.html

Petersen BT, Chennat J, Cohen J et al. ASGE-SHEA Guideline. Multisociety guideline on reprocessing flexible GI endoscopes: 2011. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011; 32.

Davidson WM, Pitts B, Stewart PS. Spatial and temporal patterns of biocide action against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Antimicro Agents Chemother 2010; 54: 2920-2027.

Andersen BM, Syversen G, Thoresen H, Rasch M, Hochlin K, Seljordslia B, Snevold I, Berg E. Failure of dry mist of hydrogen peroxide 5 % to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Hosp Infect 2010; 76:80-83.

Andersen BM, Hochlin K, Daling J-P. Cleaning and decontamination of reusable medical equipments, including the use of hydrogen peroxide dry-mist gas decontamination. J Microbiol Biochem Technol 2012; 4:57-62.

Spencer M, Pettis AM. Environmental services technology. APIC 2011, Baltimore MD, June 27-29, 2011.

Nye nasjonale anbefalinger for håndhygiene, Folkehelseinstituttet

Flåttbårne sykdommer

Diagnostikk og behandling av Lyme borreliose. Rapport til Helsedirektoratet fra arbeidsgruppe nov. 2009 med referanser

European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis www.eucalb.com, case definition

Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Kristiansen BE, Grude N, Tveten Y, Emmert A. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2009 Oct 22;129(20):2132-4. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.09.0849. Norwegian. No abstract available. PMID: 19855455 definitionIncidence and antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans in Norway 2005-2009. Eliassen KE, Berild D, Reiso H, Grude N, Christophersen KS, Finckenhagen C, Lindbæk M. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017

Clinical characteristics of childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area of northern Europe. Øymar K, Tveitnes D. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009

Lyme arthritis in Southern Norway--an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis. Haugeberg G, Hansen IJ, Skarpaas T, Noraas S, Kjelland V. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Apr 5

Randomized Trial of Longer-Term Therapy for Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease..Berende A, ter Hofstede HJ, Vos FJ, van Middendorp H, Vogelaar ML, Tromp M, van den Hoogen FH, Donders AR, Evers A

Characteristics and Clinical Outcome of Lyme Neuroborreliosis in a High Endemic Area, 1995-2014: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Denmark.Knudtzen FC, Andersen NS, Jensen TG, Skarphédinsson. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 W, Kullberg BJ

Dessau, R. B, et al. 2014 “Rapport: Lyme Borreliose. Klinik, diagnostik og behandling i Danmark. 2.utgave”

Hagberg, L. 2016 www.internetmedicin.se

Ljøstad, U, et al. 2008 “Oral doxycycline versus intravenous ceftriaxone for European Lyme neuroborreliosis: a multicentre, non-inferiority, double-blind, randomised trial”

Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer for antibiotikabruk i primærhelsetjenesten. 

Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for bruk av antibiotika i sykehus

Legeforeningen. NevroNEL/metoder-prosedyrer

Wormser GP, Dattwyler RJ, Shapiro ED et al. The Clinical Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Lyme Disease, Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 43, Issue 9, 1 November 2006

Stanek G, et al: Clinical case definitions for diagnosis and managment in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17:69-79

Borchers AT, et al: Lyme disease: A rigorous review of diagnostic criteria and trestment. J Autoimmun 2015, 57: 82-115

HIV-infeksjon og AIDS

Norsk forening for Infeksjonsmedisin – Faglige retningslinjer for oppfølging og behandling av HIV

European AIDS Clinical Society Guidelines

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines

EACS European AIDS Clinical Society

AIDSinfo

Infeksiøse barnesykdommer

Dunkle LM, Arvin AM, Whitley RJ, Rotbart HA, Feder HM Jr, Feldman S, Gershon AA, Levy ML, Hayden GF, McGuirt PV. A controlled trial of acyclovir for chickenpox in normal children. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(22):1539.

Albrecht MA. Treatment of varicella-zoster virus infection: Chickenpox. In: Up To Date. 09.04.2015.

Vaksinasjonshandboken. Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt. http://www.fhi.no/publikasjoner-og-haandboker/vaksinasjonsboka. 09.04.2015.

Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer for antibiotikabruk i primærhelsetjenesten. 

Generel veileder i pediatri. Norsk barnelegeforening. http://www.helsebiblioteket.no/retningslinjer/pediatri/infeksjoner-vaksiner. 09.04.2015.

Akutt veileder i pediatri. Norsk barnelegeforening. http://www.helsebiblioteket.no/retningslinjer/akuttveileder-i-pediatri/infeksjoner. 09.04.2015

Infeksiøse tarmsykdommer

Kao D, Roach B, Silva M, et al.  Effect of Oral Capsule- vs Colonoscopy-Delivered Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017 Nov 28;318(20):1985-1993. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.17077.  (Original Study)  PMID: 29183074

Infeksjoner i bein og ledd

Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for bruk av antibiotika i sykehus.

Mader JT, Shirtliff M, Calhoun JH. Staging and staging application in osteomyelitis. Clin Inf Dis : 1997;25:1303-9.

Lew DP, Waldvogel FA. Osteomyelitis. The NEJM. 1997;336:999-1007.

Spellberg B, Lipsky BA. Systemic antibiotic therapy for chronic osteomyelitis in adults. Clin Inf Dis 2012;54:393-407.

Conterno LO, da Silva Filho CR. Antibiotics for treating chronic osteomyelitis in adults. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2009:CD004439.

Berbari EI, Kanj SS, Todd J et al. 2015 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Native Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 61: 859-863.

Bernard L, Dinh A, Ghout I et al. Antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks versus 12 weeks in patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled trial. The Lancet 2015, 385, No. 9971, p875–882.

Peltola H, Paakkonen M, Kallio P, Kallio MJ. Short- versus long-term antimicrobial treatment for acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of childhood: prospective, randomized trial on 131 culture-positive cases. Ped inf dis journ 2010;29:1123-8.

Zimmerli et al. Prostetic-joint infections. NEJM 2004;351:1645-54

Vårdprogram för led- och skelettinfektioner, revision 2018. Svenska Infektionsläkarföreningen

Osmon DR et al. Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection: Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Disease Society of America. Clin Inf Dis 2013;56:e1-25.

Innvollsmark

The Medical Letter. Drugs for parasitic infections 2013

Invasive soppinfeksjoner

Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for bruk av antibiotika i sykehus

Day JN et al. Combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1291-302.

Elewa H et al. Therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole in the management of invasive fungal infections: a critical review. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2015 Jun 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Glocker E et al. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and congenital susceptibility to Candida. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;10:542-50.

Goldstein EJC et al. Recent Advances in the management of mucormycosis: from bench to bedside. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48: 1743-1751.

Hoenigl M et al. Antifungal therapy of aspergillosis of the central nervous system and aspergillus endophthalmitis. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19:3648-68

Kontoyiannisn DP. Antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: the unfinished tale of imperfect success. Bone Marrow Transplant 2011;46:165–173

Marr KA et al. Combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162:81-9.

Miceli MH et al. Emerging opportunistic yeast infections. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:142-51.

Morrissey CO et al. Galactomannan and PCR versus culture and histology for directing use of antifungal treatment for invasive aspergillosis in high-risk haematology patients: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:519-28.

Schelenz S et al. British Society for Medical Mycology best practice recommendations for the diagnosis of serious fungal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:461-74.

Segal BH. Aspergillosis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1870-84.

Malaria, rickettsioser og schistosomiasis

Folkehelseinstituttet. Veileder om forebygging av malaria hos reisende. Oslo, 2015

Folkhälsomyndigheten. Rekommendationer för malariaprofylax 2015. Stockholm, 2015

Nekrotiserende fasciitt

Stevens, D.L., et al., Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis, 2014. 59(2): p. e10-52.

Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for bruk av antibiotika i sykehus: Nekrotiserende bløtdelsinfeksjoner. Helsedirektoratet 2013; Https://sites.helsedirektoratet.no/sites/antibiotikabruk-i-sykehus/terapikapitler/hud-og-blotdeler/nekrotiserende-blotdelsinfeksjoner/Sider/default.aspx

Sarani, B., et al., Necrotizing fasciitis: current concepts and review of the literature. J.Am.Coll.Surg., 2009. 208: 279-288.

Phan, H.H. and C.S. Cocanour, Necrotizing soft tissue infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med., 2010. 38: S460-S468.

Goh, T., et al., Early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. Br J Surg, 2014. 101: e119-25.

Carapetis, J.R., et al., Effectiveness of clindamycin and intravenous immunoglobulin, and risk of disease in contacts, in invasive group a streptococcal infections. Clin Infect Dis, 2014. 59: 358-65.

Linner, A., et al., Clinical efficacy of polyspecific intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a comparative observational study. Clin Infect Dis, 2014. 59: 851-7.

Seksuelt overførbare infeksjoner (Soi)

Smittevernveilederen e-bokversjon (www.fhi.no) Folkehelseinstituttet 2013

Gonoré og syfilis i Norge, Folkehelseinstituttet 14.04.2015

Klamydia og LGV i Norge 2013, Folkehelseinstituttet 2.06.2014

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Europe 2012. ECDC 8.07.2014

Harald Moi. Ny behandlingsanbefaling ved gonoré. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen - Publisert først på nett 22. mai 2013

Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for bruk av antibiotika i sykehus. Helsedirektoratet 2013

Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer for antibiotikabruk i primærhelsetjenesten (under rev.)

Bignell C, Unemo M. 2012 European guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea in adults. www.iusti.org/regions/europe/pdf/2012/Gonorrhoea_2012.pdf

IUSTI. Current European Guidelines for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections wwwiusti.org

Kaveh Minami. A review of infection with chlamydia trachomatis. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Dec;20(6):941-51. Epub 2006 Aug 24.

S Skidmore, P Horner, H Mallinson. Testing specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82, 272-275

Inger Johanne Bakken, Harald Bratt, Finn Egil Skjeldestad, Svein Arne Nordbø. Påvisning av chlamydia trachomatis i urin-, vulva- og cervixprøver. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2005; 125: 169-30

Falk L, Coble BI, Mjörnberg PA, Fredlund H. Sampling for Chlamydia trachomatis infection - a comparison of vaginal, first-catch urine, combined vaginal and first-catch urine and endocervical sampling. Int J STD AIDS. 2010 Apr;21(4):283-7.

Kong FY et al. Azithromycin versus doxycycline for the treatment of genital chlamydia infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 59:193-205

Steedman NM, McMillan A. Treatment of asymptomatic rectal Chlamydia trachomatis: is single-dose azitromycin effective? Int J STD & AIDS 2009; 20 (1): 16-18

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Treatment Guidelines 2012 www.cdc.gov/std

M Kingston et al. UK National Guidelines on Management of Syphilis 2008. Int J of STD & AIDS 2008; 19: 729-740

John G. Beuman. Genital Herpes: A review. Amercan Family Physician 2005; Vol 72: 1527-1534

Stephen K. Tyring et al. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Comparison of Oral Valacyclovir and Acyclovir in Immunocompetent Patients With Recurrent Genital Herpes Infections. Arh Dermatol. 1998; 134: 185-191

Raj Patel, Emma Rutland. Has episodic treatment of recurrent genital herpes come of age? Int J of STD & AIDS 2007; 18: 437-439

S M Garland. Imiquimod 5 % cream is a safe and effective self-applied treatment for anogenital warts – results of an open-label multicentre Phase IIIB trial. Int J of STD & AIDS 2001; 12: 722-729

H Gollnick et al. Safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5 % cream in the treatment of penile genitalt warts in uncurcumcised men when applied three times weekly or once per day. Int J of STD % AIDS; 12: 22-28

Elise J.N. Jernberg, Harald Moi. Mycoplasma gentalium – etiologisk agens for seksuelt overført infeksjon. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen nr 17, 2007; 127: 2233-5

Jensen JS. Mycoplasma genitalium: a common agent of urethritis and other sexual transmitted diseases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venerolo 2004; 18: 1-11

A Wickstrøm, J S Jensen. Mycoplasma genitalium: a common cause of persistent urethritis among men treated with doxycycline. Sex Transm Inf 2006; 82: 276-279

E Jernberg, A Moghaddam, H Moi. Azitromycin and moxifloxacin for microbiological cure of Mycoplasma gentalium infection: an open study. Int J of STD & AIDS 2008; 19: 676-679

E Nilsen, E Vik, M A Røed. Lav forekomst av M genitalium blant pasienter undersøkt for C trachomatis. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2011; 131:2232-4

Sujatha Srinivasan et al. Bacterial Communities in Women with Bacterial Vaginosis: High Resolution Phylogenetic Analyses Reveal Relationships of Microbiota to Clinical Criteria. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6): e37818

UpToDate

BMJ Best Practice

Lis R et al Mycoplasma genitalium Infection and Female Reproductive Tract Disease: A Meta-analysis. CID 2015; 61:418-426

Falk L, Enger M, Jensen JS Time to eradication of Mycoplasma genitalium after antibiotic treatment in men and women. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015;70(11):3134-40.

Bachmann LH et al. Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Male Urethritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61 Suppl 8:S763-9.

Salado-Rasmussen K, Jensen JS Mycoplasma genitalium testing pattern and macrolide resistance: a Danish nationwide retrospective survey. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(1):24-30.

Manhart LE, Jensen JS, Bradshaw CS, Golden MR, Martin DH. Efficacy of Antimicrobial Therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium Infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61 Suppl 8:S802-17.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Aug;29(8):1616-20. doi: 10.1111/jdv.12963. Epub 2015 Jan 26. Identification of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium using real-time PCR. Wold C, Sorthe J, Hartgill U, Olsen A O, Moghaddam A, Reinton N.

Sepsis

Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for bruk av antibiotika i sykehus

NORM 2014 - Norsk overvåkningssystem for antibiotikaresistens hos mikrober. (www.antibiotikaresistens.no)

De Backer D, Aldecoa C, Njimi H, Vincent JL: Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock: a meta-analysis*. Crit Care Med 2012;40:725-730

Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, Annane D, Gerlach H, et al.; Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:165-228

Ferrer R, Martin-Loeches I, Phillips G, Osborn TM, Townsend S, et al. Empiric Antibiotic Treatment Reduces Mortality in Sepsis and Septic Shock From the First Hour. Crit Care Med 2014;42:1749-1755

Flaatten H: Epidemiology of sepsis in Norway in 1999. Crit Care 2004;8:R180-184

Holst LB, Haase N, Wetterslev J, Wernerman J, Guttormsen AB, et al.; TRISS Trial Group; Scandinavian Critical Care Trials Group. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1381-91

Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, Light B, Parrillo JE, et al: Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med 2006;34:1589-1596

Levy MM, Artigas A, Phillips GS, Rhodes A, Beale R, et al. Outcomes of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign in intensive care units in the USA and Europe: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:919-24.

Nabarro LE, Veeraraghavan B  Combination therapy for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: increasing evidence, unanswered questions, potential solutions. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015;34:2307-11

Perner A, Haase N, Guttormsen AB, Tenhunen J, Klemenzson G, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:124–34

Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW et al. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA 2016; 315: 801-10

Urinveisinfeksjoner

https://helsedirektoratet.no/antibiotika

https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/nasjonal-faglig-retningslinje-for-antibiotikabruk-i-primerhelsetjenesten

helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/nasjonal-faglig-retningslinje-for-antibiotikabruk-i-spesialisthelsetjenesten