G23.3 Kilder

Miljøpåvirkning av legemidler

Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet VKM. 2009. Risk assessment of contaminants in sewage sludge applied on Norwegian soils.

Cunningham VL, Buzby M, Hutchinson T, Mastrocco F, Parke N, Roden N. 2006. Effects of human pharmaceuticals on aquatic life: next steps. Environ Sci Technol 40: 3456-62.

EMA European Medicines Agency. 2006. Guideline on the environmental risk assessment of medicinal products for human use. . http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_guideline/2009/10/WC500003978.pdf

Galligan, T.H., Amano, T., Prakash, V.M., Kulkarni, M., Shringarpure, R., Prakash, N., Ranade, S., Green, R.E., Cuthbert, R.J., 2014. Have population declines in Egyptian Vulture and Red-headed Vulture in India slowed since the 2006 ban on veterinary diclofenac? Bird Conservation International 24, 272–281. doi:10.1017/S0959270913000580

Grung M, Kallqvist T, Sakshaug S, Skurtveit S, Thomas K. 2008. Environmental assessment of Norwegian priority pharmaceuticals based on the EMEA guideline. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 71:328-340; doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.10.015.

Grung, M., Heimstad, E.S., Moe, M., Schlabach, M., Svenson, A., Thomas, K.V., et al. 2008. Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, narcotics and personal care products in the environment. KLIF report TA 2325-2007.

Grung, M., Källqvist, T., Thomas, K.V. 2007. Initial assessment of eleven pharmaceuticals using the EMEA guideline in Norway, KLIF report TA 2216-2007. 49.

Grung, M., Thomas, K.V. 2010. Miljøpåvirkning av legemidler (G23). I Norsk legemiddelhåndbok for helsepersonell 2010, pp. 1973-1982.

Kümmerer K. 2001. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment - Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks. Springer.

Langford K, Thomas KV. 2011. Input of selected human pharmaceutical metabolites into the Norwegian aquatic environment. J. Environ. Monit. 13:416; doi:10.1039/c0em00342e

Langford KH, Thomas KV. 2009. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in hospital effluents and their contribution to wastewater treatment works. Environment international 35: 766–770.

Läkemedelsverket i Sverige. 2004. Miljöpåverkan från läkemedel samt kosmetiska och hygieniska produkter. 286.

Oaks Jl, Gilbert M,Virani MZ, Watson RT, Meteyer CU, Rideout BA et al. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 2004;427:630-3.

Sakshaug, S., Strøm, H., Berg, C., Litleskare, I., Salvesen Blix, H., Rønning, M., et al. 2011. Legemiddelforbruket i Norge 2006-2010.

Schlabach, M., Dye, C., Kaj, L., Klausen, S., Langford, K., Leknes, H., et al. 2009. Environmental screening of selected organic compounds 2008. Human and hospital-use pharmaceuticals, aquaculture medicines and personal care products.KLIF report TA 2508-2009. 114.

Thomas KV, Dye C, Schlabach M, Langford KH. 2007. Source to sink tracking of selected human pharmaceuticals from two Oslo city hospitals and a wastewater treatment works. J. Environ. Monit. 9:1410; doi:10.1039/b709745j.

Thomas, K.V., Langford, K., Grung, M., Schlabach, M., Dye, C. 2007. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluents from hospitals (Ullevål and Rikshospitalet) and VEAS wastewater treatment works. KLIF report TA 2246-2008. 37.

Vasskog T. Occurence of selected antidepressants in the Norwegian environment. PhD; University of Tromsø: Tromsø; 2008

Wennmalm Å, Gunnarsson B. 2010. Experiences with the Swedish environmental classification scheme. In Green and sustainable pharmacy, pp. 243-249, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.